The Republic and its associated policy of separate development – there was much emphasis on separation, little on development – brought forth only bitter fruit. The demolition of the political organisations and trade unions of the African people which followed close on the declaration of the republic, could not prevent them from nurturing their own dreams of freedom. “Separate development” reached its turning point in 1976 when the Transkei became an independent state – but independent in name only, a comic simulacrum of the real thing. Instead of enthusiasm, it generated only contempt amongst the urban Africans. The youth of Soweto and Cape Town, influenced by the newly assertive Black Consciousness movement, far from joyously flocking back to their “homelands”, rebelled in 1976 against the government’s education policy. After this, everything was different.
In the heart of africa africans shall meet as one
And africa uta swema kiswabili to seal the african bond
Before I die
How I long to be there
In that part of you africa
And drink from the calabash
by Ingoapele Madingoane 
 Written in 1979. From “Africa my beginning – Black trial”, Ravan Press, Johannesburg.