Afrikaner nationalism reached its apogee with the declaration of a republic in 1961, and the almost simultaneous withdrawal from the British Commonwealth. Now the Afrikaner nationalists had, as they said, got their country back – it had been a long and bitter struggle from the defeat and humiliation of 1902. They ruled the national government absolutely, and three of the four provinces. The Africans and more recently the ‘coloureds’ were now voteless; the descendants of the British settlers a declining minority who in any case only mildly reprehended the policies of apartheid; the nation could now be re-made as a predominantly Afrikaner stronghold, against the world if necessary. Even the national anthem made it clear who the real citizens were:
Vaderland! Ons sal die adel van jou naam met ere dra:
Waar en trou, as Afrikaners – kinders van Suid Afrika.
Fatherland! We will carry the nobility of your name with honour:
True and faithful, as Afrikaners – children of South Africa.
by C J Langenhoven 
 From Die Stem van Suid-Afrika in Eerste skoffies op die pad van Suid-Afrika, Nasionale Boekhandel and the government of South Africa.